Evelyn Chokuda, Chris Reynolds and Satyajit Das* Pages 122 - 142 ( 21 )
With the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), the survival of HIV patients has improved dramatically, but the complications of the disease and treatment have become an important issue in the management of HIV patients. Vitamin-D deficiency is common in HIV patients. Low vitamin-D is associated with different comorbidities in the HIV uninfected general population.In this review, we first briefly describe vitamin D synthesis and mechanism of action and we focus on the epidemiological and clinical data dealing with the relationship between vitamin D deficiency in HIV infection with several comorbidities which has been found to be increasingly common in patients living with HIV infection. We searched the PubMed database using the keywords “HIV,” “vitamin D,” and other common disorders or conditions that are relatively common in HIV infection. The other conditions included in the search were osteoporosis and fracture, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and insulin resistance, active tuberculosis, hepatitis-C co-infection, and HIV disease progression. Articles presenting original data as well as systematic reviews and met analysis related to HIV population were included in our analysis. Vitamin-D deficiency seems to be associated with several adverse outcomes in HIV patients but a definite cause and effect relationship with vitamin-D is yet to be confirmed in most of the cases. However, the literature supporting the efficacy of vitamin-D supplementation is lacking.
HIV, vitamin D, diabetes, fracture, cardiovascular disease, Hepatitis C, tuberculosis, cancer.
Department of HIV Medicine, Coventry & Warwickshire Partnership Trust, Coventry, Department of HIV Medicine, Coventry & Warwickshire Partnership Trust, Coventry, Department of HIV Medicine, Coventry & Warwickshire Partnership Trust, Coventry