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Mosquito and Tick-borne Illnesses in the United States. Guidelines for the Recognition and Empiric Treatment of Zoonotic Diseases in the Wilderness.

[ Vol. 19 , Issue. 3 ]


Suresh Antony*   Pages 238 - 257 ( 20 )


Background: In the United States, tick-borne illnesses account for a significant number of patients that have been seen and treated by health care facilities. This in turn, has resulted in a significant morbidity and mortality and economic costs to the country.

Methods: The distribution of these illnesses is geographically variable and is related to the climate as well. Many of these illnesses can be diagnosed and treated successfully, if recognized and started on appropriate antimicrobial therapy early in the disease process. Patient with illnesses such as Lyme disease, Wet Nile illness can result in chronic debilitating diseases if not recognized early and treated.

Conclusion: This paper covers illnesses such as Lyme disease, West Nile illness, Rocky Mountain Spotted fever, Ehrlichia, Tularemia, typhus, mosquito borne illnesses such as enteroviruses, arboviruses as well as arthropod and rodent borne virus infections as well. It covers the epidemiology, clinical features and diagnostic tools needed to make the diagnosis and treat these patients as well.


Ticks, mosquitoes, wilderness, identification, treatment, diseases.


Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Department of Infectious Diseases, and Center for Infectious Diseases and Travel Medicine, El Paso, Texas

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